Human resource development
Q.1. Explain role of Change Agents in establishing sound HRD Practices in organisations. Describe any two HRD Practices useful in potential development
Q.2. Describe the role of Line Mangers as well as of HRD Managers in developing self-renewing capabilities in an organisation. How can managers help employees to improve their career opportunities?
Q.3 Discuss the role of developmental supervision in facilitating empowerment f employees. Why is counseling gaining importance in modern organisations?
Q.4 Explain the status of HRD in government and public systems. Suggest the desired HRD interventions in government systems.
Q.5. Explain the factors which account for differences in HRD across different countries Should HRD practices be culture specific ? Substantiate with examples.
Q.6. Evaluate rational of HRD for workers Can unions play any role in HRD for workers ? Suggest measures to operationalise HRD for workers.
Q7. Describe existing HRD structure in the organisations you are working for or are familiar with. What are the complexities involved in effectively implementing the HRD functions ?
Q.8. Read the case and attempt the questions following the case:
As Technical Managers at SP Engineering Works, one of my major responsibilities was modernization of Plant and Machinery.
SP Engineering Works was set up somewhere around 1962-63 as a forge shop to cater to the requirements of forgings for the automotive industry, the major customers being companies such as TELCO, Ashok Leyland Mahindra & Mahindra, Bajaj Tempo, etc. The traditional equipment for the manufacture of forgings has been a drop hammer. SP Engineering Works set up the facility with nine drop hammers in the range of 25,000 lbs to 2,000 lbs. All these were imported from America as second – hand equipment. Along with the forging hammers, the other major equipment required are suitable furnaces for heating the raw steel billet material. The material is heated to about 1250 Deg. C and with a die (Which has the essential cavity of the forging with it) a billet is forged to the shape of the forging, which could be a crankshaft or connecting rod or something similar. The furnaces, too, were brought somewhere around 1968. Quite clearly both these pieces of equipment were already old, based on old technology and required modernization.
The forging furnaces were identified as the major equipment to be replaced. Since these furnaces were all based on rather primitive technology, the fuel consumption was prohibitively high and this had already been recognised by the late seventies / early eighties. It was, therefore decided to do away with the old furnaces completely and install totally new state – of – the art furnaces instead
It is important here to highlight the systematic way by which the problem itself was first identified and subsequent actions then taken.
Detailed fuel consumption readings were taken for all the furnaces: hence, the fuel consumption per ton of material heated was known. While the furnaces were running during regular production, readings were taken for fuel consumption, material heated with various types of jobs and leading of the furnaces to determine the current situation of fuel consumption in the plant. The total fuel consumption per year was in the region of Rs, 6 crore for a turnover of Rs. 60 crore at that
Point of time (1981-82), i.e. almost 10 per cent of the turnover.
To begin with, I was deputed to see the Exhibition of Forging Furnaces and Heat Treatment Equipment held at the International Exhibition Centre in Birmingham. This exhibition is held every two year. I also attended a seminar, which was running concurrently at the exhibition, n subjects such as heating equipment, heat treatment, etc. I was therefore, able to discuss at first – hand and apprise myself of all the latest heating equipment being used in the forging industry. I interacted with various specialist firm in England, visiting their works as well as the forging shops where these furnaces had been installed. From these forge shops, I obtained information regarding the working of these furnaces. I also obtained quotation from the suppliers of forging furnaces required by us with guaranteed fuel consumption parameters. In the process, I gathered information regarding the latest technology on burners, insulation materials like ceramic fibre, recuperators to pre – heat the incoming air used for combustion. With these latest features, fuel consumption parameters were almost one-third of what we were currently consuming at SP Engineering Works.
On my return, I contacted the specialist furnace manufactures in India. These companies have collaborations with specialist furnace suppliers in France, England, Germany, etc, I apprised them of the discussions I had with the furnace manufacturers in England and then obtained quotations form those Indian manufactures who committed to nearly the same kind of fuel consumption figures as had been indicated to me by the manufactures of furnaces in England. A detailed, nearly 100-page report was prepared for the Management wherein the current status of furnaces, new proposals, requirement of investment, time period of execution and cost benefit analysis were clearly spelt our. It was highlighted that fuel consumption could almost be halved and for an investment f Rs. 3.5 to 4 crore, the payback period worked out to a little more than a year a half.
Subsequently, of curse, detailed layouts for the installation of these furnaces in the plant were made. The most important factor to consider was that all new furnaces were to be installed in the running shop without disturbing the current production . Therefore, new furnaces were to be installed and tried out at production. One – by – one all old furnaces were removed from the shop. From the date of first action the whole exercise took two year. I would like report that not only was the fuel consumption reduced as expected, but higher capacity furnaces were put at the same locations which contributed significantly to raising the level of productivity along with cutting cost of fuel at SP Engineering Works.
I think that having proceeded in a very systematic manner with full analysis, understanding and therefore conviction of all the people involved including the top and operating management, it was possible to make a success of this assignment.
In the same breath, let me present a second, and equally ambitious exercise on which we embarked, which did not produce the result we had desired.
As I had mentioned earlier SP Engineering Works was set up for making forgings with drop hammers. This was an old technology equipment and has now been replaced elsewhere largely be forging presses, which offer a number of advantages including far higher levels of productivity, and reduced material consumption. Except in America, forging presses have become standard forging equipment all over the world predominantly in Europe and Japan.
I had been very keen that slowly we too switched over to manufacture of forging on forgings presses at SP Engineering Works. Consequently initiated a proposal fro setting up a forging press. The investment was in the region of Rs.4crore. The proposal was prepared, discussed with top management and in principle approval was obtained to go ahead. Consequently, I interacted with various forging press manufacturers in England, Germany and Japan. I also visited many forging plants in Europe to see these forging presses in operation, including a plant of Bofors in Sweden, which at the point of time had the most modern fully – automated forging line for front axle beams for trucks. I invited quotations from various suppliers and finally negotiated, along with the General Manger, for a forging press to be supplied by a company in West Germany
The press was ordered and work proceeded on its manufacture in West Germany. However, there was some hesitation on the par of both the top and operating management. For a brief period, SP Engineering Works passed through a lean phase. A few months before the press was expected to be ready, there were hushed indications that SP Engineering Works should not opt for this kind of investment. All the same, the work progressed well and the press was ready for our inspection and I was to visit the press manufacturer in West Germany. Just before my departure I was told that we should cancel the order for this press and not go ahead with bringing it to SP Engineering Works. After inspecting and taking trials on fur special forgins, I told the supplier that we wanted to cancel the order.
You can imagine the kind of reaction which the supplier had. It was indeed disheartening for me too to see my company giving up such a golden opportunity. I was totally convinced that the future lay in forging presses. All the same. The order was cancelled. I think I was a bit lucky in being able to negotiate a decent penalty for SP engineering Works. According to international standards, manufactures can demand payment of penalty upto 25 per cent, whereas I think I managed to et my company out of the deal with a penalty of somewhere in the region of Rs. 25 lakh. I was able to achieve this low penalty by being able to place an order with the manufacture for another type of press for making armament shells. I am glad to report that the second venture went through quite well and the second press has been duly installed at SP Engineering Works and is giving considerable diversified business to the company.
However, I consider that I failed in my objective, which was to set up a modern forging press at SP Engineering Works. As I have stated earlier, it was successfully carried out till the last moment. But my objective that my company have modern forging press did not materialize.
I think that unlike the case of forging furnaces, I was not able to sell the idea of a forging press as well to my operating colleagues. At the time of placing the order the top management accepted the proposal: but perhaps not with a strong conviction. I failed to do the detailed analysis and spell out the benefits to the company in term of additional business as I had done in the case of forging furnaces. There were many opponents, neither convinced nor committed to the new investment and the proposal could not be carried through finally.
1. Critically evaluate the process of managing change with reference to the facts discussed in the case
2. What advice would you have for the company for a more effective change management strategy?
Q.9. What is Human Resource Development (HRD) ? Describe the salient issues of HRD in the Indian context.
Q.10. Examine salient features of HRD climate. Can proactive orientation of employees be prompted in organisations? Discuss with suitable examples.
Q11. Evaluate role of line managers in HRD. How can line managers improve self-renewal process in organisations ?
Q.12. Compare the salient issues of culture and climate with reference to HRD interventions in organisation. What can you do to establish a healthy culture and climate?
Q.13. Compare the salient issues of culture and climate with reference to HRD interventions in organisation. What can you do to establish a healthy culture and climate ?
Q.14. What are the shortcomings in HRD approach towards managing health and family welfare in India? How may the shortcoming be overcome ?
Q.15. What is the scope and relevance of task analysis in improving organisational climate ? Can one improve the motivation of employees to bring positive change ?
Q.16. Write short notes on any three of the following:
- Performance Appraisal System
- HRD – OD- IR Approach
- Role Analysis
- HRD Climate
- Management Development
Q.17. Why is HRD needed in an organisation ? Explain briefly the sub-systems of HRD and their importance in organisational context.
Q.18. Evaluate the HRD practices at C- DOT . Can enhancing inter- personal sensitivity be taken as an effective tool for HRD ?
Q.19. Suggest measures for promoting work motivation. What precautions would you advise to prevent the failure of such measures ?
Q.20. Identify bases of power in the organizations. What would you do to empower an employer at the middle order in the hierarchy ?
Q.21. What kind of HRD activities and interventions would be relevant in defence
services and in police administration ?
Q.22. Analyse the role of HRD in service sector. What types of HRD interventions are relevant to service organisations?
Q.23. Examine the various feature which distinguish Human Resources Development (HRD) and Industrial Relations (IR), What are the pre-requisites for successful HRD approach to IR ?
Q.24. Write briefly on any three of the following:
a) Developmental supervision.
b) Role efficacy
c) Conflict management
d) Dynamics of frustration
e) Training and HRD
Q.25. What do you mean by Human Resource Development (HRD) ? What HRD measures would you like to implement in order to promote effective communication in an organisation ?
Q.26. Distinguish between intrinsic Motivational factors and Extrinsic Motivational Factors. Can Work Motivational be improved in an organisation ?
Q.27. What approach should be adopted to integrate HRD system in government administration ? How would you rate the Indian experience in this respect ?
Q.28. What are the competencies required for HRD staff ? Suggest measures for developing HRD skills.
Q.29. What are the various objectives of mentioning and counseling ? Discuss the importance of professional counseling in the Indian organisational context with suitable example.
Q.30. Write short notes on any three of the following :
(i) Organisational Health and effectiveness
- Need for HRD in the Indian public sector organizations
- HRD mechanisms for blue collar workers
- HRD for the non-government sector
Q.31. Explain the meaning of organizational culture with reference to HRD.
Q.32. “It has been found that an employee has low motivation in one organisation working on a job, and may develop high motivation on the same on similar job in another organisation. Critically examine the statement, also discuss the dimensions of role efficacy.
Q.33. Do cultural, economic and socio- political factors affect inculcation of HRD climate at macro and micro levels? Why do organisations operating in the same geographical areas widely differ in HRD practices at micro level, explain with examples.
Q.34. Why does employee frustration set- in an organisation ? Discuss strategies at organisational level to cope with / manage frustration, explain with suitable examples.
Q.35. Identify the developmental mechanisms for improving I.R. Discuss the salient feature of the core programme for developing managerial personnel and unions for improving I.R.
Q.36. How does nature and objectives of organisation affect type and role of HRD, explain with suitable examples.
Q.37. Write short notes on any three of the following:
- Role of Trade Unions in HRD for workers
- Task Delienation.
- HRD – OD – IR linkage
- Self – Renewal system
Q.38. “Employees’ motivation is determined both by the employees’ orientation and the external factors in the organisational role and climate.” Critically evaluate the statement and discuss the underlying concepts.
Q.39. Why is HRD important for workers ? Explain and critically evaluate the status of HRD for workers in India. Cite suitable examples.
Q.40. Do HRD practices influence the climate and culture of the organisation ? Examine the role of top management and line managers in creating HRD climate in the organisation.
Q.41. Define and difference between HRD, OD and IR. Explain the pre-requisites for initiating HRD for improving IR in an organisation.
Q.42. What do you understand by supervisory control ? Explain. Discuss the process involved in supervisory control.
Q.43. Write short notes one any three of the following:
(i) Bases and types of power
- Listening and asking
- Performance appraisal system
- Effective team building
Q.44. How does the nature and objectives of an organisation affect the type and role of HRD interventions required for development of the organisation? Explain with suitable examples from industrial and service sector organisations.
Q.45. What do you understand by supervisory control ? Discuss the process involved in supervisory control.
Q.46. Explain the concept of counseling with suitable examples and contrast counseling and mentoring.
Q.47. What are the major HRD mechanisms for blue collar workers ? How do these mechanisms contribute to development of competency and motivation ?
Q.48. Why is HRD important for health and family welfare of workers ? How can HRD interventions help develop them for effective implementation of the programme ? Explain with examples.
Q.49. Write short notes on any three of the following :
(i) Personal efficacy and role efficacy
- Task analysis
- Role of Govt. in HRD
- Effective team building
- Nurturing and Helping
Q.50. How do you asses the economic value of people in an organisation ? Explain the role of Human Resource Audit in this context. Discuss with example the information needs for assessment of economic value of people.
Q.51. Describe briefly the techniques of data collection which can be used for job Analysis. What precautions should be taken while using those techniques ? Discuss.
Q.52. A trading company traditionally engaged in the trading of consumer goods has planned for expansion by value addition of existing activities and by diversification into manufacturing of consumer durables and pharmaceutical goods. How would you plan to asses the future training need of the organization?
Q.53. “There is a definite link between education and economic growth and the lack of adequate skilled manpower impedes growth.” To which approach of Human Resource Planning does this statement belong ? Discuss critically the steps involved in this approach.
Q.54. What arguments will an organisation have for a ‘transfer policy ? What are the essential elements that a transfer policy should have and why ? Explain with suitable example.
Q.55. Write short notes on any three of the following :
(i) Job evaluation methods
- Labour market behaviour
- Demand forecasting
- Promotion and Reward Policies
- Human Resource Costs
Q.56. Define HRD. Discuss linkage between HRD mechanisms, processes and outcomes. How does this linkage affect the overall effectiveness of an organisation ? Explain with suitable example.
Q.57. Examine the role of change agents in introducing HRD system in an organisation. How important is the role of line managers and top management in the process ? Discuss with suitable organisation examples.
Q.58. Explain the significance of Task Analysis as a potential HRD tool. How can Task Analysis be used for improving the performance of individuals and teams ? Explain with examples.
Q.59. Discuss the rational and objectives of HRD for workers. Critically evaluate the role of Trade Unions in HRD for workers. Explain with examples.
Q.60. Write short notes on any four of the following:
a) HRD matrix
b) Promoting work motivation
c) Process of counseling
d) HRD climate
e) Various forms of HRD in organisation
f) Developing HRD facilitation competencies
Q.61. Why should HRD be an integral part of Organisational Systems ? How can sub-systems of HRD contribute t the overall development of an organisation ? Explain with examples.
Q.62. What could be the possible ways and means for promoting work motivation in an organisational situation ? Briefly discuss the actions required to ensure success of such measures.
Q.63. What are the bases of power in the organisations ? How can middle level employee in an organisational hierarchy be empowered ?
Q.64. The services sector is set to play the major role in the economic development of the country. Cortically analyse the role of HRD in this sector, if any. Explain with suitable examples, what type of HRD interventions would be suitable for this sector.
Q.65. How can HRD be used to develop positive Industrial Relations in an organisation ? Discuss the pre – requisites for a successful HRD approach to I.R.
Q.66. Write short notes on any three of the following.
(i) Performance Appraisal System.
- Role Efficacy
- Dynamics of Frustration.
- Conflict Management
- Development supervision.